Authors: Xingjia Pan, Yuqiang Ren, Kekai Sheng, Weiming Dong, Haolei Yuan, Xiaowei Guo, Chongyang Ma, Changsheng Xu Description: Object detection has achieved remarkable progress in the past decade. However, the detection of oriented and densely packed objects remains challenging because of following inherent reasons: (1) receptive fields of neurons are all axis-aligned and of the same shape, whereas objects are usually of diverse shapes and align along various directions. (2) detection models are typically trained with generic knowledge and may not generalize well to handle specific objects at test time. (3) the limited dataset hinders the development on this task. To resolve the first two issues, we present a dynamic refinement network that consists of two novel components, i.e., a feature selection module (FSM) and a dynamic refinement head (DRH). Our FSM enables neurons to adjust receptive fields in accordance with the shapes and orientations of target objects, whereas the DRH empowers our model to refine the prediction dynamically in an object-aware manner. To address the limited availability of related benchmarks, we collect an extensive and fully annotated dataset, namely, SKU110K-R, which is relabeled with oriented bounding boxes based on SKU110K. We perform quantitative evaluations on several publicly available benchmarks including DOTA, HRSC2016, SKU110K, and our own SKU110K-R dataset. Experimental results show that our method achieves consistent and substantial gains compared with baseline approaches. Our source code and dataset will be released to encourage follow-up research.