Abstract: Image classification in the open-world must handle out-of-distribution (OOD) images. Systems should ideally reject OOD images, or they will map atop of known classes and reduce reliability. Using open-set classifiers that can reject OOD inputs can help. However, optimal accuracy of open-set classifiers depend on the frequency of OOD data. Thus, for either standard or open-set classifiers, it is important to be able to determine when the world changes and increasing OOD inputs will result in reduced system reliability. However, during operations, we cannot directly assess accuracy as there are no labels. Thus, the reliability assessment of these classifiers must be done by human operators, made more complex because networks are not 100% accurate, so some failures are to be expected. To automate this process, herein, we formalize the open-world recognition reliability problem and propose multiple automatic reliability assessment policies to address this new problem using only the distribution of reported scores/probability data. The distributional algorithms can be applied to both classic classifiers with SoftMax as well as the open-world Extreme Value Machine (EVM) to provide automated reliability assessment. We show that all of the new algorithms significantly outperform detection using the mean of SoftMax.
Authors: Mohsen Jafarzadeh, Touqeer Ahmad, Akshay Raj Dhamija, Chunchun Li, Steve Cruz, Terrance E. Boult (University of Colorado, Colorado Springs)