Avoiding Catastrophe: Active Dendrites Enable Multi-Task Learning in Dynamic Environments (Review)

Avoiding Catastrophe: Active Dendrites Enable Multi-Task Learning in Dynamic Environments (Review)

Mar 22, 2022
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#multitasklearning #biology #neuralnetworks Catastrophic forgetting is a big problem in mutli-task and continual learning. Gradients of different objectives tend to conflict, and new tasks tend to override past knowledge. In biological neural networks, each neuron carries a complex network of dendrites that mitigate such forgetting by recognizing the context of an input signal. This paper introduces Active Dendrites, which carries over the principle of context-sensitive gating by dendrites into the deep learning world. Various experiments show the benefit in combatting catastrophic forgetting, while preserving sparsity and limited parameter counts. OUTLINE: 0:00 - Introduction 1:20 - Paper Overview 3:15 - Catastrophic forgetting in continuous and multi-task learning 9:30 - Dendrites in biological neurons 16:55 - Sparse representations in biology 18:35 - Active dendrites in deep learning 34:15 - Experiments on multi-task learning 39:00 - Experiments in continual learning and adaptive prototyping 49:20 - Analyzing the inner workings of the algorithm 53:30 - Is this the same as just training a larger network? 59:15 - How does this relate to attention mechanisms? 1:02:55 - Final thoughts and comments Paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/2201.00042 Blog: https://numenta.com/blog/2021/11/08/can-active-dendrites-mitigate-catastrophic-forgetting ERRATA: - I was made aware of this by https://twitter.com/ChainlessCoder: "That axon you showed of the pyramidal neuron, is actually the apical dendrite of the neuron". Sorry, my bad :) Abstract: A key challenge for AI is to build embodied systems that operate in dynamically changing environments. Such systems must adapt to changing task contexts and learn continuously. Although standard deep learning systems achieve state of the art results on static benchmarks, they often struggle in dynamic scenarios. In these settings, error signals from multiple contexts can interfere with one another, ultimately leading to a phenomenon known as catastrophic forgetting. In this article we investigate biologically inspired architectures as solutions to these problems. Specifically, we show that the biophysical properties of dendrites and local inhibitory systems enable networks to dynamically restrict and route information in a context-specific manner. Our key contributions are as follows. First, we propose a novel artificial neural network architecture that incorporates active dendrites and sparse representations into the standard deep learning framework. Next, we study the performance of this architecture on two separate benchmarks requiring task-based adaptation: Meta-World, a multi-task reinforcement learning environment where a robotic agent must learn to solve a variety of manipulation tasks simultaneously; and a continual learning benchmark in which the model's prediction task changes throughout training. Analysis on both benchmarks demonstrates the emergence of overlapping but distinct and sparse subnetworks, allowing the system to fluidly learn multiple tasks with minimal forgetting. Our neural implementation marks the first time a single architecture has achieved competitive results on both multi-task and continual learning settings. Our research sheds light on how biological properties of neurons can inform deep learning systems to address dynamic scenarios that are typically impossible for traditional ANNs to solve. Authors: Abhiram Iyer, Karan Grewal, Akash Velu, Lucas Oliveira Souza, Jeremy Forest, Subutai Ahmad Links: TabNine Code Completion (Referral): http://bit.ly/tabnine-yannick YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/c/yannickilcher Twitter: https://twitter.com/ykilcher Discord: https://discord.gg/4H8xxDF BitChute: https://www.bitchute.com/channel/yannic-kilcher LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/ykilcher BiliBili: https://space.bilibili.com/2017636191 If you want to support me, the best thing to do is to share out the content :) If you want to support me financially (completely optional and voluntary, but a lot of people have asked for this): SubscribeStar: https://www.subscribestar.com/yannickilcher Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/yannickilcher Bitcoin (BTC): bc1q49lsw3q325tr58ygf8sudx2dqfguclvngvy2cq Ethereum (ETH): 0x7ad3513E3B8f66799f507Aa7874b1B0eBC7F85e2 Litecoin (LTC): LQW2TRyKYetVC8WjFkhpPhtpbDM4Vw7r9m Monero (XMR): 4ACL8AGrEo5hAir8A9CeVrW8pEauWvnp1WnSDZxW7tziCDLhZAGsgzhRQABDnFy8yuM9fWJDviJPHKRjV4FWt19CJZN9D4n

0:00 - Introduction 1:20 - Paper Overview 3:15 - Catastrophic forgetting in continuous and multi-task learning 9:30 - Dendrites in biological neurons 16:55 - Sparse representations in biology 18:35 - Active dendrites in deep learning 34:15 - Experiments on multi-task learning 39:00 - Experiments in continual learning and adaptive prototyping 49:20 - Analyzing the inner workings of the algorithm 53:30 - Is this the same as just training a larger network? 59:15 - How does this relate to attention mechanisms? 1:02:55 - Final thoughts and comments
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