Abstract: We study the task of replicating the functionality of black-box neural models, for which we only know the output class probabilities provided for a set of input images. We assume back-propagation through the black-box model is not possible and its training images are not available, e.g. the model could be exposed only through an API. In this context, we present a teacher-student framework that can distill the black-box (teacher) model into a student model with minimal accuracy loss. To generate useful data samples for training the student, our framework (i) learns to generate images on a proxy data set (with images and classes different from those used to train the black-box) and (ii) applies an evolutionary strategy to make sure that each generated data sample exhibits a high response for a specific class when given as input to the black box. Our framework is compared with several baseline and state-of-the-art methods on three benchmark data sets. The empirical evidence indicates that our model is superior to the considered baselines. Although our method does not back-propagate through the black-box network, it generally surpasses state-of-the-art methods that regard the teacher as a glass-box model.
Authors: Antonio Barbalau, Adrian Cosma, Radu Tudor Ionescu, Marius Popescu (University of Bucharest, University Politehnica of Bucharest)