Authors: Siyuan Li, Semih Günel, Mirela Ostrek, Pavan Ramdya, Pascal Fua, Helge Rhodin Description: Our goal is to capture the pose of real animals using synthetic training examples, without using any manual supervision. Our focus is on neuroscience model organisms, to be able to study how neural circuits orchestrate behaviour. Human pose estimation attains remarkable accuracy when trained on real or simulated datasets consisting of millions of frames. However, for many applications simulated models are unrealistic and real training datasets with comprehensive annotations do not exist. We address this problem with a new sim2real domain transfer method. Our key contribution is the explicit and independent modeling of appearance, shape and pose in an unpaired image translation framework. Our model lets us train a pose estimator on the target domain by transferring readily available body keypoint locations from the source domain to generated target images. We compare our approach with existing domain transfer methods and demonstrate improved pose estimation accuracy on Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), Caenorhabditis elegans (worm) and Danio rerio (zebrafish), without requiring any manual annotation on the target domain and despite using simplistic off-the-shelf animal characters for simulation, or simple geometric shapes as models. Our new datasets, code and trained models will be published to support future computer vision and neuroscientific studies.