Explainable face recognition (XFR) is the problem of explaining why a facial matcher matches faces. In this paper, we provide the first comprehensive benchmark and baseline evaluation for explainable face recognition. We define a new evaluation protocol called the ``inpainting game'', which is a curated set of 3648 triplets (probe, mate, nonmate) of 95 subjects, which differ by synthetically inpainting a chosen facial characteristic like the nose, eyebrows or mouth creating an inpainted nonmate. An explainable face matcher is tasked with generating a network attention map which best explains which regions in a probe image match with a mated image, and not with an inpainted nonmate for each triplet. This provides ground truth for quantifying what image regions contribute to face matching. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive benchmark on this dataset comparing five state of the art methods for network attention in face recognition on three facial matchers. This benchmark includes two new algorithms for network attention called subtree EBP and Density-based Input Sampling for Explanation (DISE) which outperform the state of the art by a wide margin. Finally, we show qualitative visualization of these network attention techniques on novel images, and explore how these explainable face recognition models can improve transparency and trust for facial matchers.
Paper Authors: Jonathan R. Williford, Brandon B. May, and Jeffrey Byrne