Deep-learning-based methods for different applications have been shown vulnerable to adversarial examples. These examples make deployment of such models in safety-critical tasks questionable. Use of deep neural networks as inverse problem solvers has generated much excitement for medical imaging including CT and MRI, but recently a similar vulnerability has also been demonstrated for these tasks. We show that for such inverse problem solvers, one should analyze and study the effect of adversaries in the measurement-space, instead of the signal-space as in previous work. In this paper, we propose to modify the training strategy of end-to-end deep-learning-based inverse problem solvers to improve robustness. We introduce an auxiliary network to generate adversarial examples, which is used in a min-max formulation to build robust image reconstruction networks. Theoretically, we show for a linear reconstruction scheme the min-max formulation results in a singular-value(s) filter regularized solution, which suppresses the effect of adversarial examples occurring because of ill-conditioning in the measurement matrix. We find that a linear network using the proposed min-max learning scheme indeed converges to the same solution. In addition, for non-linear Compressed Sensing (CS) reconstruction using deep networks, we show significant improvement in robustness using the proposed approach over other methods. We complement the theory by experiments for CS on two different datasets and evaluate the effect of increasing perturbations on trained networks. We find the behavior for ill-conditioned and well-conditioned measurement matrices to be qualitatively different.
Speakers: Ankit Raj, Yoram Bresler, Bo Li