Authors: Qi Cai, Yingwei Pan, Yu Wang, Jingen Liu, Ting Yao, Tao Mei Description: Region sampling or weighting is significantly important to the success of modern region-based object detectors. Unlike some previous works, which only focus on hard'' samples when optimizing the objective function, we argue that sample weighting should be data-dependent and task-dependent. The importance of a sample for the objective function optimization is determined by its uncertainties to both object classification and bounding box regression tasks. To this end, we devise a general loss function to cover most region-based object detectors with various sampling strategies, and then based on it we propose a unified sample weighting network to predict a sample's task weights. Our framework is simple yet effective. It leverages the samples' uncertainty distributions on classification loss, regression loss, IoU, and probability score, to predict sample weights. Our approach has several advantages: (i). It jointly learns sample weights for both classification and regression tasks, which differentiates it from most previous work. (ii). It is a data-driven process, so it avoids some manual parameter tuning. (iii). It can be effortlessly plugged into most object detectors and achieves noticeable performance improvements without affecting their inference time. Our approach has been thoroughly evaluated with recent object detection frameworks and it can consistently boost the detection accuracy. Code has been made available at https://github.com/caiqi/sample-weighting-network.