Projection & Probability-Driven Black-Box Attack

CVPR 2020

Authors: Jie Li, Rongrong Ji, Hong Liu, Jianzhuang Liu, Bineng Zhong, Cheng Deng, Qi Tian Description: Generating adversarial examples in a black-box setting retains a significant challenge with vast practical application prospects. In particular, existing black-box attacks suffer from the need for excessive queries, as it is non-trivial to find an appropriate direction to optimize in the high-dimensional space. In this paper, we propose Projection & Probability-driven Black-box Attack (PPBA) to tackle this problem by reducing the solution space and providing better optimization. For reducing the solution space, we first model the adversarial perturbation optimization problem as a process of recovering frequency-sparse perturbations with compressed sensing, under the setting that random noise in the low-frequency space is more likely to be adversarial. We then propose a simple method to construct a low-frequency constrained sensing matrix, which works as a plug-and-play projection matrix to reduce the dimensionality. Such a sensing matrix is shown to be flexible enough to be integrated into existing methods like NES and Bandits/home/nwindesh/miniconda3/bin/python3{TD}$. For better optimization, we perform a random walk with a probability-driven strategy, which utilizes all queries over the whole progress to make full use of the sensing matrix for a less query budget. Extensive experiments show that our method requires at most 24% fewer queries with a higher attack success rate compared with state-of-the-art approaches. Finally, the attack method is evaluated on the real-world online service, i.e., Google Cloud Vision API, which further demonstrates our practical potentials.