Authors: Mengmi Zhang, Claire Tseng, Gabriel Kreiman Description: Context plays an important role in visual recognition. Recent studies have shown that visual recognition networks can be fooled by placing objects in inconsistent contexts (e.g., a cow in the ocean). To model the role of contextual information in visual recognition, we systematically investigated ten critical properties of where, when, and how context modulates recognition, including the amount of context, context and object resolution, geometrical structure of context, context congruence, and temporal dynamics of contextual modulation. The tasks involved recognizing a target object surrounded with context in a natural image. As an essential benchmark, we conducted a series of psychophysics experiments where we altered one aspect of context at a time, and quantified recognition accuracy. We propose a biologically-inspired context-aware object recognition model consisting of a two-stream architecture. The model processes visual information at the fovea and periphery in parallel, dynamically incorporates object and contextual information, and sequentially reasons about the class label for the target object. Across a wide range of behavioral tasks, the model approximates human level performance without retraining for each task, captures the dependence of context enhancement on image properties, and provides initial steps towards integrating scene and object information for visual recognition. All source code and data are publicly available: https://github.com/kreimanlab/Put-In-Context.