Switch Transformers: Scaling to Trillion Parameter Models with Simple and Efficient Sparsity (Paper Explained)
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#ai #technology #switchtransformer Scale is the next frontier for AI. Google Brain uses sparsity and hard routing to massively increase a model's parameters, while keeping the FLOPs per forward pass constant. The Switch Transformer compares favorably to its dense counterparts in terms of speed and sample efficiency and breaks the next magic number: One Trillion Parameters. OUTLINE: 0:00 - Intro & Overview 4:30 - Performance Gains from Scale 8:30 - Switch Transformer Architecture 17:00 - Model-, Data- and Expert-Parallelism 25:30 - Experimental Results 29:00 - Stabilizing Training 32:20 - Distillation into Dense Models 33:30 - Final Comments Paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/2101.03961 Codebase T5: https://github.com/google-research/text-to-text-transfer-transformer Abstract: In deep learning, models typically reuse the same parameters for all inputs. Mixture of Experts (MoE) defies this and instead selects different parameters for each incoming example. The result is a sparsely-activated model -- with outrageous numbers of parameters -- but a constant computational cost. However, despite several notable successes of MoE, widespread adoption has been hindered by complexity, communication costs and training instability -- we address these with the Switch Transformer. We simplify the MoE routing algorithm and design intuitive improved models with reduced communication and computational costs. Our proposed training techniques help wrangle the instabilities and we show large sparse models may be trained, for the first time, with lower precision (bfloat16) formats. We design models based off T5-Base and T5-Large to obtain up to 7x increases in pre-training speed with the same computational resources. These improvements extend into multilingual settings where we measure gains over the mT5-Base version across all 101 languages. Finally, we advance the current scale of language models by pre-training up to trillion parameter models on the "Colossal Clean Crawled Corpus" and achieve a 4x speedup over the T5-XXL model. Authors: William Fedus, Barret Zoph, Noam Shazeer Links: TabNine Code Completion (Referral): http://bit.ly/tabnine-yannick YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/c/yannickilcher Twitter: https://twitter.com/ykilcher Discord: https://discord.gg/4H8xxDF BitChute: https://www.bitchute.com/channel/yannic-kilcher Minds: https://www.minds.com/ykilcher Parler: https://parler.com/profile/YannicKilcher LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/yannic-kilcher-488534136/ BiliBili: https://space.bilibili.com/1824646584 If you want to support me, the best thing to do is to share out the content :) If you want to support me financially (completely optional and voluntary, but a lot of people have asked for this): SubscribeStar: https://www.subscribestar.com/yannickilcher Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/yannickilcher Bitcoin (BTC): bc1q49lsw3q325tr58ygf8sudx2dqfguclvngvy2cq Ethereum (ETH): 0x7ad3513E3B8f66799f507Aa7874b1B0eBC7F85e2 Litecoin (LTC): LQW2TRyKYetVC8WjFkhpPhtpbDM4Vw7r9m Monero (XMR): 4ACL8AGrEo5hAir8A9CeVrW8pEauWvnp1WnSDZxW7tziCDLhZAGsgzhRQABDnFy8yuM9fWJDviJPHKRjV4FWt19CJZN9D4n

0:00 - Intro & Overview 4:30 - Performance Gains from Scale 8:30 - Switch Transformer Architecture 17:00 - Model-, Data- and Expert-Parallelism 25:30 - Experimental Results 29:00 - Stabilizing Training 32:20 - Distillation into Dense Models 33:30 - Final Comments
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