Underspecification Presents Challenges for Credibility in Modern Machine Learning (Paper Explained)

Underspecification Presents Challenges for Credibility in Modern Machine Learning (Paper Explained)

Nov 10, 2020
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#ai #research #machinelearning Deep Learning models are often overparameterized and have many degrees of freedom, which leads to many local minima that all perform equally well on the test set. But it turns out that even though they all generalize in-distribution, the performance of these models can be drastically different when tested out-of-distribution. Notably, in many cases, a good model can actually be found among all these candidates, but it seems impossible to select it. This paper describes this problem, which it calls underspecification, and gives several theoretical and practical examples. OUTLINE: 0:00 - Into & Overview 2:00 - Underspecification of ML Pipelines 11:15 - Stress Tests 12:40 - Epidemiological Example 20:45 - Theoretical Model 26:55 - Example from Medical Genomics 34:00 - ImageNet-C Example 36:50 - BERT Models 56:55 - Conclusion & Comments Paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/2011.03395 Abstract: ML models often exhibit unexpectedly poor behavior when they are deployed in real-world domains. We identify underspecification as a key reason for these failures. An ML pipeline is underspecified when it can return many predictors with equivalently strong held-out performance in the training domain. Underspecification is common in modern ML pipelines, such as those based on deep learning. Predictors returned by underspecified pipelines are often treated as equivalent based on their training domain performance, but we show here that such predictors can behave very differently in deployment domains. This ambiguity can lead to instability and poor model behavior in practice, and is a distinct failure mode from previously identified issues arising from structural mismatch between training and deployment domains. We show that this problem appears in a wide variety of practical ML pipelines, using examples from computer vision, medical imaging, natural language processing, clinical risk prediction based on electronic health records, and medical genomics. Our results show the need to explicitly account for underspecification in modeling pipelines that are intended for real-world deployment in any domain. Authors: Alexander D'Amour, Katherine Heller, Dan Moldovan, Ben Adlam, Babak Alipanahi, Alex Beutel, Christina Chen, Jonathan Deaton, Jacob Eisenstein, Matthew D. Hoffman, Farhad Hormozdiari, Neil Houlsby, Shaobo Hou, Ghassen Jerfel, Alan Karthikesalingam, Mario Lucic, Yian Ma, Cory McLean, Diana Mincu, Akinori Mitani, Andrea Montanari, Zachary Nado, Vivek Natarajan, Christopher Nielson, Thomas F. Osborne, Rajiv Raman, Kim Ramasamy, Rory Sayres, Jessica Schrouff, Martin Seneviratne, Shannon Sequeira, Harini Suresh, Victor Veitch, Max Vladymyrov, Xuezhi Wang, Kellie Webster, Steve Yadlowsky, Taedong Yun, Xiaohua Zhai, D. Sculley Links: YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/c/yannickilcher Twitter: https://twitter.com/ykilcher Discord: https://discord.gg/4H8xxDF BitChute: https://www.bitchute.com/channel/yannic-kilcher Minds: https://www.minds.com/ykilcher Parler: https://parler.com/profile/YannicKilcher LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/yannic-kilcher-488534136/ If you want to support me, the best thing to do is to share out the content :) If you want to support me financially (completely optional and voluntary, but a lot of people have asked for this): SubscribeStar: https://www.subscribestar.com/yannickilcher Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/yannickilcher Bitcoin (BTC): bc1q49lsw3q325tr58ygf8sudx2dqfguclvngvy2cq Ethereum (ETH): 0x7ad3513E3B8f66799f507Aa7874b1B0eBC7F85e2 Litecoin (LTC): LQW2TRyKYetVC8WjFkhpPhtpbDM4Vw7r9m Monero (XMR): 4ACL8AGrEo5hAir8A9CeVrW8pEauWvnp1WnSDZxW7tziCDLhZAGsgzhRQABDnFy8yuM9fWJDviJPHKRjV4FWt19CJZN9D4n

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